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Fig. 4


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Total fossil fuel consumption of runs with varying maximum productivity Mmax, with tf = 100 years. Each dot corresponds to a run with a specific Mmax. Gray and black dots correspond respectively to failed and successful energy transition along with its duration (in green). Dashed lines represent power generation carbon budget of France to maintain global warming below 1.5 °C (in purple) and 2 °C (in red).

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